The name “adverbial” suggests that adverbial clauses modify verbs; but they modify whole clauses, as shown by the examples [below]. Their other key property is that they are adjuncts, since they are typically optional constituents in sentences. They are traditionally classified according to their meaning, for example adverbial clauses of reason, time, concession, manner or condition, as illustrated below.
|kind of clause||common conjunctions||function||example|
|time clauses||when, before, after, since, while, as, as long as, until,till, etc. (conjunctions that answer the question “when?”); hardly, scarcely, no sooner, etc.||These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event.||-Shut the door before you go out.
-You may begin when(ever) you are ready.
-While he was walking home, he saw an accident.
|conditional clauses||if, unless, lest||These clauses are used to talk about a possible or counterfactual situation and its consequences.||-If I see him, I will invite him to the party tomorrow.
-She would forgive her husband everything, if only he would come back to her.
|purpose clauses||in order to, so that, in order that||These clauses are used to indicate the purpose of an action.||-They went to the movie early (in order) to find the best seats.
-She bought a book so (that) she could learn English
-He is saving his money so that he may take a long vacation.
|reason clauses||because, since, as, given||These clauses are used to indicate the reason for something.||-I couldn’t feel anger against him because I liked him too much.|
|result clauses||so…that||These clauses are used to indicate the result of something.||-My suitcase had become so damaged on the journey home that the lid would not stay closed.|
|concessive clauses||although, though, while||These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising.||-As the time you were sleeping, we were working hard.
-Mary wanted to stop, whereas I wanted to go on.
-Although it is late, we’ll stay a little longer.
|place clauses||where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere, etc. (conjunctions that answer the question “where?”)||These clauses are used to talk about the location or position of something.||-They sat down wherever they could find empty seats
-The guard stood where he was positioned.
-Where there is a will, there is a way.
|clauses of manner||as, like, the way||These clauses are used to talk about someone’s behaviour or the way something is done.||-He did as I told him.
-You may finish it how you like.
The difference between advrebial clause and adverbial phrase is adverbial clause can stand independently if seperated but adverbial phrase can not. for example:
1. I saw Joe when i went to store. ( adverbial Clause)
2. He paly football to win. ( Adverbial Phrase )